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A Decade Of Telangana with Unresolved Bifurcation Issues

A Decade Of Telangana with Unresolved Bifurcation Issues

Ten years ago, on June 2, 2014, the state of Andhra Pradesh was bifurcated, creating the new state of Telangana. This landmark decision aimed to address regional imbalances and aspirations. However, a decade later, several crucial issues pertaining to the division of resources and institutions remain unresolved, casting a shadow over the economic and social development of both states.

Key Points of Contention

The primary source of contention lies in the AP Reorganisation Act of 2014 (APRA-2014). This act outlined the bifurcation process and addressed the division of assets, liabilities, and institutions between Andhra Pradesh and Telangana. However, several aspects of the act are entangled in ongoing court battles.

One major sticking point is the division of assets and liabilities under Schedule IX of the APRA-2014. This schedule lists 91 public sector undertakings (PSUs) and corporations that require bifurcation. An expert committee, the Sheela Bhide panel, was formed to recommend a division plan. However, disagreements between the states on the committee’s recommendations and the interpretation of the act’s headquarters provision have stalled progress.

Another unresolved issue is the sharing of river waters, particularly Krishna river water. The APRA-2014 specifies a 66:34 ratio in favor of Telangana, but disputes regarding implementation persist.

Impact and Future Outlook

The unresolved bifurcation issues pose significant challenges for both Telangana and Andhra Pradesh. The lack of clarity regarding resource allocation hinders infrastructure development and economic growth. Additionally, these issues create an atmosphere of uncertainty that discourages investments.

Moving forward, a collaborative effort from both state governments and the central government is necessary. Amicable settlements through negotiations or following court rulings are crucial to ensure a smooth and equitable division of resources.

June 2nd, 2014, marked a historic turning point for India as Telangana emerged as a separate state after a long and arduous struggle. Ten years on, the state celebrates its achievements in development while grappling with unresolved issues arising from the bifurcation of Andhra Pradesh. This essay explores Telangana’s decade-long journey, highlighting its progress amidst the shadows of lingering disputes.

A Story of Growth and Transformation

Telangana’s narrative is undeniably one of progress. The state has witnessed a significant increase in its Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP), with a robust IT sector and a growing focus on agriculture. The per capita income has risen steadily, indicating an improvement in the overall standard of living. Initiatives like Mission Bhagiratha, aimed at providing clean drinking water supply, have addressed critical infrastructure needs in rural areas.

The state government has prioritized the development of Hyderabad, the joint capital until June 2024. Hyderabad has emerged as a major IT hub, attracting investments and creating employment opportunities. Telangana has also made strides in education and healthcare, with a focus on improving accessibility and quality.

The Bifurcation Blues: A Legacy of Unresolved Issues

Despite the undeniable progress, Telangana’s journey hasn’t been without challenges. The bifurcation process left behind a complex web of unresolved issues that continue to cast a shadow. A major point of contention is the division of assets and liabilities as outlined in the Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014. Schedules 9 and 10 of the Act listed state public sector undertakings (PSUs) and institutions to be divided between the two states. However, the division of 22 PSUs remains unresolved, hindering a clean financial separation.

Another contentious issue is the sharing of Krishna and Godavari river waters. The states have differing interpretations of water allocation ratios, leading to disputes that are currently being adjudicated by tribunals. The status of power bills incurred during the initial transition period after bifurcation also remains a point of contention.

Hyderabad: A City in Transition

Hyderabad, a shared capital for a decade, has witnessed its own set of challenges. The bifurcation mandated Hyderabad to become the sole capital of Telangana after 2024. This transition has necessitated the creation of a new capital city for Andhra Pradesh, Amaravati. However, the development of Amaravati has been slow, leaving Andhra Pradesh without a permanent capital. Additionally, the division of administrative buildings and resources in Hyderabad has led to some friction between the two states.

Finding Common Ground: The Path Forward

Resolving these outstanding issues is crucial for both Telangana and Andhra Pradesh to move forward on a path of sustainable development. A spirit of cooperation and dialogue is essential to reach mutually agreeable solutions. The central government also has a role to play in facilitating discussions and ensuring a fair and transparent implementation of the Reorganisation Act.

Looking Ahead: Building a Brighter Future

Despite the unresolved issues, Telangana’s journey in the last decade offers a story of resilience and progress. The state has carved its own niche and established itself as a dynamic and growing economy. As it steps into its second decade, focusing on internal development while working towards an amicable resolution of bifurcation issues will be key to Telangana’s future success.

Here are some additional points to consider that could expand this essay to 1000 words:

  • Discuss the socio-political impact of bifurcation on both Telangana and Andhra Pradesh.
  • Explore the role of civil society and social movements in Telangana’s statehood struggle.
  • Analyze the challenges faced by specific sectors like agriculture or education in the new state.
  • Discuss the future potential of Telangana, focusing on areas like renewable energy or knowledge-based industries.
  • Provide a balanced perspective by including viewpoints from both Telangana and Andhra Pradesh on the unresolved issues.

A Decade of Telangana: A Social Issues Perspective


The state of Telangana, carved out of Andhra Pradesh, came into existence on June 2, 2014. This historic event was the culmination of decades of struggle and agitation by the people of the Telangana region, seeking to address economic, political, and social disparities. Over the past decade, Telangana has experienced significant development and transformation, yet it continues to grapple with a range of social issues. This essay explores the social landscape of Telangana over the past ten years, focusing on key issues such as agrarian distress, education, healthcare, gender inequality, and urbanization.

Agrarian Distress

Agriculture remains a critical sector in Telangana, employing a significant portion of the population. However, the state has faced persistent agrarian distress, marked by farmer suicides, indebtedness, and inadequate irrigation facilities. Despite government initiatives like the Rythu Bandhu scheme, which provides financial support to farmers, and the Mission Kakatiya project, aimed at restoring water bodies, challenges persist. Irregular monsoons, erratic rainfall, and drought conditions exacerbate the vulnerability of small and marginal farmers. Efforts to improve agricultural productivity and ensure sustainable livelihoods for farmers are ongoing, but the road ahead is fraught with difficulties.


Education in Telangana has seen mixed progress over the past decade. On one hand, the state government has implemented several initiatives to improve access to education and enhance the quality of schooling. The establishment of new educational institutions, digital classrooms, and scholarships for economically weaker sections are steps in the right direction. However, challenges such as high dropout rates, inadequate infrastructure in rural schools, and the quality of education remain significant concerns. Additionally, the COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted educational processes, disproportionately affecting students from marginalized communities who lack access to digital learning resources.


The healthcare sector in Telangana has witnessed notable improvements, yet significant gaps remain. The state has made strides in expanding healthcare infrastructure, with new hospitals and health centers being established, particularly in urban areas. Initiatives like the KCR Kit, which provides comprehensive care for pregnant women and newborns, and the Aarogyasri scheme, offering free medical treatment for low-income families, have had positive impacts. Despite these efforts, rural healthcare facilities often suffer from shortages of medical staff and equipment, and there is a pressing need to address the disparities in healthcare access between urban and rural populations. The pandemic underscored the vulnerabilities of the healthcare system, highlighting the need for greater investment and resilience.

Gender Inequality

Gender inequality remains a pervasive issue in Telangana, manifesting in various forms, including disparities in education, employment, and political representation. While there have been efforts to promote women’s empowerment through schemes like the Kalyana Lakshmi and Shaadi Mubarak, which provide financial assistance for marriages of women from low-income families, deeper societal norms and attitudes continue to hinder progress. Women in rural areas face significant barriers to education and employment, and gender-based violence remains a serious concern. Efforts to combat these issues require not only policy interventions but also cultural and societal changes to promote gender equality.


Urbanization in Telangana has been rapid, particularly in the state capital, Hyderabad, which has emerged as a major IT and business hub. This urban growth has brought economic opportunities and infrastructural development, yet it has also led to several social issues. The influx of migrants seeking employment has strained urban infrastructure, leading to challenges such as housing shortages, traffic congestion, and inadequate public services. Additionally, the growth of informal settlements or slums has raised concerns about the living conditions of urban poor, who often lack access to basic amenities like clean water, sanitation, and healthcare.

Environmental Concerns

Environmental degradation is another pressing issue in Telangana. The state’s rapid industrialization and urbanization have led to deforestation, loss of biodiversity, and pollution of water bodies. The government has initiated programs like Haritha Haram, a massive afforestation campaign aimed at increasing green cover, but sustaining these efforts requires continuous monitoring and community participation. Additionally, the impact of climate change, manifested in irregular weather patterns and extreme events, poses a significant threat to the state’s ecological balance and necessitates robust climate adaptation strategies.

Social Equity and Inclusion

Telangana’s diverse social fabric includes various castes, tribes, and minority communities, each with unique challenges. Social equity and inclusion remain critical areas of concern. While affirmative action policies and welfare schemes aim to uplift marginalized communities, issues like caste discrimination, land rights, and access to resources persist. Tribal communities, in particular, face displacement due to developmental projects and often struggle to secure their traditional livelihoods. Efforts to ensure social justice and equitable development require a comprehensive approach that addresses the root causes of exclusion and marginalization.

Political Dynamics

The political landscape of Telangana has been dominated by the Telangana Rashtra Samithi (TRS) since the state’s formation, with K. Chandrashekar Rao (KCR) as the Chief Minister. The TRS government has focused on various development projects and welfare schemes, but political stability has not entirely translated into social harmony. Political patronage and the concentration of power have sometimes led to allegations of corruption and nepotism. Ensuring transparency and accountability in governance is crucial for addressing social issues effectively and fostering public trust.

Youth and Employment

The youth population in Telangana is both a potential asset and a challenge. While the state has made efforts to create employment opportunities through initiatives like T-Hub, aimed at fostering innovation and entrepreneurship, the gap between education and employability remains a concern. Many graduates face difficulties in finding suitable employment, leading to underemployment and migration in search of better opportunities. Addressing these challenges requires a multi-pronged approach, including enhancing the quality of education, providing vocational training, and creating a conducive environment for startups and businesses.


A decade of Telangana’s existence has been marked by significant achievements and persistent challenges. While the state has made strides in various sectors, social issues such as agrarian distress, education and healthcare disparities, gender inequality, urbanization, and environmental concerns continue to require focused attention and concerted efforts. The journey ahead for Telangana involves not only addressing these immediate concerns but also fostering an inclusive and sustainable development model that ensures the well-being of all its citizens. As Telangana moves forward, the lessons learned from the past decade will be crucial in shaping a more equitable and prosperous future for the state.

Frequently Asked Questions

Q: What are the main reasons behind the unresolved bifurcation issues?

A: The primary reasons include disagreements over the division of assets and liabilities under Schedule IX of APRA-2014, differing interpretations of the act’s provisions, and ongoing court cases.

Q: How does this situation affect the people of Telangana and Andhra Pradesh?

A: The uncertainty surrounding resource allocation hinders development projects and discourages investments, impacting the overall economic growth of both states.

Q: What are some possible solutions to these issues?

A: Amicable settlements through negotiations or following court rulings are essential to ensure a clear and fair division of resources. Collaboration between the state governments and the central government is necessary to find a lasting solution.

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